برآورد دماهای کاردینال و تعیین اثر دما و پتانسیل اسمزی بر جوانه‌زنی گلرنگ (Carthamus tinctorius L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد علوم و تکنولوژی بذر، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان.

2 استادیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان.

چکیده

این پژوهش با هدف برآورد دماهای کاردینال و تعیین اثر دما و پتانسیل اسمزی بر جوانه‌زنی بذرهای گلرنگ (رقم گلدشت) در آزمایشگاه زراعت دانشکده علوم کشاورزی دانشگاه گیلان، در سال 1395 انجام شد. آزمایش به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با چهار تکرار انجام شد. تیمارها شامل هفت سطح دمایی (5، 10، 15، 20، 25، 30 و 35 درجه سانتی­گراد) و پنج سطح پتانسیل اسمزی (صفر، 0.2-، 0.4-، 0.6- و 0.8- مگاپاسکال) بود. تجزیه واریانس داده‌ها نشان داد که سطوح مختلف پتانسیل اسمزی، دما و برهمکنش آن‌ها بر درصد جوانه‌زنی، سرعت جوانه‌زنی و شاخص بنیه تأثیر معنی‌داری (0.01≥P) داشت. مقایسه میانگین نشان داد که با کاهش پتانسیل اسمزی، درصد جوانه‌زنی و دامنه دمایی مطلوب جوانه‌زنی بذرهای گلرنگ کاهش یافت. همچنین کاهش پتانسیل اسمزی سبب کاهش سرعت جوانه‌زنی و شاخص بنیه در تمامی تیمارهای دمایی شد، به‌گونه‌ای که بالاترین سرعت جوانه‌زنی (19.8 بذر در روز) و شاخص بنیه (1.96) به ترتیب در تیمار شاهد در دماهای 20 و 25 درجه سانتی‌گراد مشاهده شد. همچنین برای توصیف رابطه بین سرعت جوانه‌زنی و دما از مدل‌های بتا، درجه دوم، منحنی، دندان مانند و دوتکه‌ای استفاده شد. بر اساس معیارهای سنجش مدل، مدل‌های درجه دو و دوتکه‌ای به ترتیب با ضریب تبیین 0.82 و 0.96 برتر بودند. بر این اساس دماهای کاردینال شامل دمای کمینه بین 2.2 تا 4.2 درجه سانتی­گراد، بهینه بین 23.15 تا 23.98 سانتی­گراد و بیشینه جوانه‌زنی بین 42.2 تا 43.89 سانتی­گراد برآورد شد. بر اساس نتایج، از مدل‌های برتر و پارامترهای برآورد شده آن‌ها می‌توان در مدل‌های سبز شدن گیاهچه در مزرعه استفاده کرد.

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