بررسی مقاومت به خشکی لاین‏های مختلف گندم نان با استفاده از صفات آگروفیزیولوژیک و شاخص انتخاب جامع

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد دانشکده علوم و مهندسی کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه.

2 دانشجوی دکتری اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده علوم و مهندسی کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه.

چکیده

به منظور مطالعه و شناسایی معیارهای آگروفیزیولوژیک مؤثر در تحمل تنش خشکی (عملکرد دانه، پارامترهای تبادلات گازی، محتوای نسبی آب برگ، محتوای کلروفیل و کاروتنوئید)، آزمایشی روی 19 نژاد بومی گندم نان در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار و تحت دو شرایط آبی و دیم در فصل زراعی 91-1390 در پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه رازی کرمانشاه انجام شد. تنش خشکی سبب کاهش عملکرد دانه به میزان 22.86 گردید اما در عوض موجب افزایش پرولین به میزان بیش از 253 درصد نسبت به‌ شرایط آبی شد. تمامی صفات مطالعه شده مرتبط با تبادلات گازی در شرایط دیم نسبت به شرایط آبی با کاهش مواجه شدند، به طوری که هدایت روزنه‎ای با حدود 45 درصد بیشترین کاهش را داشت. بر اساس نتایج، شاخص انتخاب جامع (ISI) ژنوتیپ‏ های شماره 4 (WC-4530)، 9 (WC-47381)، 18 (WC-47636) و 11 (WC-4566) را به عنوان ژنوتیپهای متحمل به خشکی مبتنی بر تمام صفات مورد مطالعه معرفی کرد. همچنین نتایج تجزیه به مؤلفه‏ های اصلی نشان داد که شاخص انتخاب جامع دارای ارتباط نزدیکی با صفات محتوای کلروفیل a، b و کاروتنوئید، دمای سطح برگ، میزان پرولین، سرعت فتوسنتز، هدایت روزنه ‏ای و عملکرد دانه در هر دو شرایط بود. بنابراین، به کمک بایپلات، این صفات به‌عنوان صفات برتر در گزینش ژنوتیپهای متحمل به خشکی شناسایی شدند.

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