تأثیر رقابت خلّر (Lathyrus sativus L.) و تاج‌خروس وحشی (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) تحت شرایط تنش کم آبی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند

2 عضو هیئت‌علمی گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند

3 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد شناسایی و مبارزه با علفهای هرز، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند

چکیده

آب یکی از مهمترین عوامل موردنیاز برای رشد و نمو گیاهان است و هر دو گونه گیاه زراعی و علفهرز برای کسب آن با یکدیگر در حال رقابت هستند. به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر تنش خشکی بر چگونگی رقابت خلّر و تاج‌خروس وحشی، آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوکهای کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار و بر اساس آزمایش‌های سریهای جانشینی در گلخانه پژوهشی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند در سال 1391 صورت گرفت. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل نسبتهای مختلف کشت خلّر- تاج‌خروس وحشی (100-صفر، 75-25، 50-50، 25-75 و صفر-100 درصد) و 4 سطح رطوبتی (100، 75، 50 و 25 درصد ظرفیت نگهداری آب گلدان) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که با افزایش شدت تنش خشکی از 100 به 25 درصد ظرفیت نگهداری آب گلدان، ماده خشک تولیدی کشت خالص هر دو گیاه خلّر و تاج‌خروس وحشی با بیش از 95 درصد کاهش همراه بود (P<0.01). بررسی شاخص عملکرد نسبی هر دو گیاه، شاخص تهاجم نسبی و همچنین شاخص غالبیت نشان داد که در شرایط وجود رقابت بین دو گیاه، در سطوح بالای رطوبتی خاک (100 تا 50 درصد ظرفیت نگهداری آب گلدان) تاج‌خروس وحشی نسبت به خلّر از قدرت رقابتی بیشتری برخوردار است. اگرچه خلّر با کاهش بیشتر آب خاک به 25 درصد ظرفیت نگهداری آب گلدان بر تاج‌خروس وحشی برتری نشان داد، اما به نظر میرسد تحت این شرایط کشت خلّر از نظر اقتصادی توجیه‌پذیر نخواهد بود.

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