اثر محلول‏ پاشی عناصر ریزمغذی بر برخی صفات فیزیولوژیک و زراعی گندم نان (.Triticum aestivum L) تحت شرایط آبیاری کامل و تنش خشکی انتهایی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته‏ کارشناسی ارشد زراعت، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان

2 دانش آموخته‏ کارشناسی ارشد علف‏های هرز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، رامهرمز

3 دانش آموخته مهندسی تولیدات گیاهی (باغبانی)، دانشگاه شهید باهنر، کرمان

4 دانش آموخته مهندسی تولیدات گیاهی (زراعت)، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، رامهرمز

چکیده

به ‏منظور بررسی اثر محلول ‏پاشی عناصر ریزمغذی بر برخی صفات فیزیولوژیک و زراعی گندم نان (.Triticum aestivum L) تحت شرایط آبیاری کامل و تنش خشکی انتهایی، آزمایشی به‏ صورت کرت‏ های خرد شده با چهار تکرار در شهرستان رامهرمز اجرا گردید. عوامل آزمایشی شامل تنش خشکی در دو سطح آبیاری کامل (عدم تنش خشکی) و قطع آبیاری از آغاز مرحله گل‏دهی تا رسیدگی فیزیولوژیک (تنش خشکی انتهایی) به‏ عنوان عامل اصلی و محلول‏ پاشی عناصر ریزمغذی در شش سطح عدم محلول‏ پاشی (شاهد)، محلول‏ پاشی با آب، آهن، روی، منگنز و آهن + روی + منگنز (هر کدام سه لیتر در هکتار) به‏ عنوان عامل فرعی بودند. نتایج نشان داد، تنش خشکی انتهایی به‏ جز محتوای پرولین برگ و پروتئین دانه، صفات شاخص کلروفیل برگ، شاخص پایداری غشای سلول، عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک و شاخص برداشت را به‏ طور معنی‏ داری کاهش داد. با این وجود، محلول‏ پاشی عناصر ریزمغذی آهن، روی و منگنز صفات اندازه‏ گیری شده در هر دو شرایط عدم تنش و تنش خشکی انتهایی را به ‏طور معنی ‏داری افزایش دادند. در این میان، کاربرد محلول ‏پاشی روی بیشترین اثر را در کاهش آسیب ناشی از تنش خشکی انتهایی بر صفات مورد اندازه‏ گیری نشان داد. به‏ طور کلی، استفاده از عناصر ریزمغذی به ‏ویژه روی به ‏صورت محلول‏ پاشی می‏تواند اثرات زیان‏بار ناشی از تنش خشکی انتهایی را کاهش و موجب بهبود صفات فیزیولوژیک، زراعی و محتوای پروتئین دانه گندم نان در منطقه رامهرمز شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


A.A.C.C., 2000. Approved Methods of American Association of Cereal Chemists 10th ed. AACC, St. Paul. Minnesota.

Abdoli, M., Esfandiari, E., Mousavi, B., and Sadeghzadeh, B., 2014. Effects of foliar application of zinc sulfate at different phenological stages on yield formation and grain zinc content of bread wheat. Azarian Journal of Agriculture. 1, 11-17.

Ahmed, M., Arain, M.A., Siddiqui, K.A., 1994. Effect of contemporary rotation simulation on the grain weight, protein and lysine content of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Pakistan Journal of Botany. 26, 311-339.

Babaeian, M., Tavassoli, A., Ghanbari, A., Esmaeilian, Y., Fahimifard, M., 2011. Effects of foliar micronutrient application on osmotic adjustments, grain yield and yield components in sunflower (Alstar cultivar) under water stress at three stages. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 6, 1204-1208.

Bates, L.S., Waldern, R.P., Teare, E.D., 1973. Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant and Soil. 39, 205-207.

Beltrano, J., Ronco, M., Montaldi, E.R., 1999. Drought stress syndrome in wheat is provoked by ethylene evolution imbalance and reversed by rewatering, aminoethoxyvinylglycine and sodium benzoate. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation. 18, 59-64.

Boorboori, M.R., EradatmandAsli, D., Tehrani, M., 2012. The effect of dose and different methods of iron, zinc, manganese and copper application on yield components, morphological traits and grain protein percentage of barley plant (Hordeum vulgare L.) in greenhouse conditions. Journal of Advances in Environmental Biology. 6, 740-746.

Cakmak, I., Sary, N., Marschner, H., Kalayci, M., Yilmaz, A., Eker, S., Gulut, K.Y., 1996. Dry matter production and distribution of Zn in bread and durum wheat genotypes differing in Zn efficiency. Plant and Soil. 180, 173-181.

Dehghan, M., Balouchi, H.R., Yadavi, A.R., Safikhani, F., 2017. Effect of foliar application of brassinolide on grain yield and yield components of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Sirvan under terminal drought stress condition. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences. 19, 40-56. [In Persian with English Summary].

Eivazi. A., Abdollahi, S., Salekdeh, H., Majidi, I., Mohamadi, A., Pirayeshfar, B., 2006. Effect of drought and salinity stress on quality related traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties. Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences. 7, 252-267. [In Persian with English Summary].

Emam, Y., Ranjbar, A.M., Bahrani, M.J., 2007. Evaluation of yield and yield components in wheat genotypes under post-anthesis drought stress. Journal of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources. 11, 221-232.

Ezzat Ahmadi, M., Noormohammadi, Gh., Ghodsi, M., Kafi. M., 2009. Effects of water deficit and spraying of desiccant on yield, yield components and water use efficiency of wheat genotypes. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 12, 1399-1407.

Famahini Farahani, M., Mirzakhani, M., Sajedi, N.A., 2017. Effect of water absorbent materials on some agronomic traits and seed protein of wheat under water deficit stress. Plant Production Technology. 7, 27-37. [In Persian with English Summary].

Fathi-Amirkhiz, K., Amini, M., Modares-Sanavi, A.M., Reza-Zadeh, A., Heshmati, S., 2011. Effect of iron application on enzymic activity, grain yield and oil content of safflower under water deficit conditions. Journal of Crop Sciences. 13, 452-465.

Ghasemian, V., Ghalavand, A., Soroosh zadeh, A., Pirzad, A., 2010. The effect of iron, zinc and manganese on quality and quantity of soybean seed. Journal of Phytology. 2, 73-79.

Graham, A.W., McDonald, G.K., 2001. Effect of zinc on photosynthesis and yield of wheat under heat stress, Proceedings of the 10th Australian Agronomy Conference 2001, Australian Society of Agronomy, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.

Hänsch, R., Mendel, R.R., 2009. Physiological functions of mineral micronutrients (Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, Ni, Mo, B, cl). Current Opinion of Plant Biology. 12, 259-266.

Jafarnejad, A., Aghaee, H., Najafian, G., 2013. Effective traits on grain yield of wheat genotypes under optimal irrigation and drought stress during reproductive phase. Journal of Applied and Crop Breeding. 1, 11-22. [In Persian with English Summary].

Karmollachaab, A., Gharineh, M.H., 2013. Effect of Zinc Element on Growth, Yield Components and some Physiological Characteristics of Maize under NaCl Salinity Stress. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research. 11, 446-453. [In Persian with English Summary].

Khayatnezhad, M., Zaeifizadeh, M. and Gholamin, R. 2011. Effect of end-season drought stress on chlorophyll fluorescence and content of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase enzyme (SOD) in susceptible and tolerant genotypes of durum wheat. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 6, 6397-6406.

Kobraee, S., Shamsi, K., Rasekhi, B., 2011. Effect of micronutrients application on yield and yield components of soybean. Annals of Biological Research. 2, 476-482.

Lee, D.G., Ahsan, N., Lee, S.H., Kang, K.Y., 2005. A proteomic approach in analyzing heat-responsive proteins in rice leaves. Proteomics. 7, 3369-3383.

Lutts, S., Kinet, J.M., Bouharmont, J., 1996. NaCl-induced senescence in leaves of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars differing in salinity resistance. Annals of Botany. 78, 389-398.

Marschner, H., 1995. Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants, 2nd ed. Academic Press, New York.

Modhej, A., Fathi, Gh., 2008. Wheat physiology. Islamic Azad University Puplication (Shushtar branch). 317p. [In Persian].

Nadim, M.A., Awan, I.U., Baloch, M.S., Khan, E.A., Naveed, Kh., Khan, M.A., 2011. Effect of micronutrients on growth and yield of wheat. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 48, 191-196.

Narimani, H., Rahimi, M.M., Ahmadikhah, A., Vaezi, B., 2010. Study on the effects of foliar spray of micronutrient on yield and yield components of durum wheat. Archives of Applied Science Research. 2, 168-176.

Ranjan, R., Bohra, S.P., Jeet, A.M., 2001. Plant senescence, Jodhpur, Agrobios New York, 18-42.

Raza, M.A.S., Saleem, M.F., Shah, G.M., Jamil, M., Khan, I.H., 2013. Potassium applied under drought improves physiological and nutrient uptake performances of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 13, 175-185.

Reddy, S.R., 2004. Principles of crop production-growth regulators and growth analysis, 2nd ed. Kalyani Publishers, Ludhiana, India.

Sannada, Y., Ueda, H., Kuribayashi, K., Andoh, T., Hayashi, F., Tamai, N., Wada, K., 1995. Novel light-dark change of proline levels in halophyte (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.) and glycophytes (Hordeum vulgare L. and Triticum aestivum L.) leaves and roots under salt stress. Journal of Plant Cell Physiology. 36, 965-970.

Seifi Nadergholi, M., Yarnia, M., Rahimzade Khoei, F., 2011. Effect of zinc and manganese and their application method on yield and yield components of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Khomein). Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research. 5, 859-865.

Singh, M., Srivastava, J.P., Kumar, A., 1992. Cell membrane stability in relation to drought tolerance in wheat genotypes. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. 168, 186-190.

Sirousmehr, A., Bardel, J., Mohammadi, S., 2015. Changes of germination properties, photosynthetic pigments and anti oxidant enzymes activity of safflower as affected by drought and salinity stresses. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology. 8, 517-534. [In Persian with English Summary].

Sun, B., Jing, Y., Chen, K., Song, L., Chen, F., Zhang, L., 2007. Protective effect of nitric oxide on iron deficiency-induced oxidative stress in maize (Zea mays L.). Journal of Plant Physiology. 164, 536-543.

Tabatabaei, S.J., 2013. Principles of mineral nutrition of plants. Tabriz University Press. 544p. [In Persian].

Wang, J.M., Zhao, H., Huang, D., Wang, Z., 2012. Different increases in maize and wheat grain zinc concentrations caused by soil and foliar applications of zinc in loess plateau, China. Field Crops Research. 135, 89-96.

Waraich, E.A., Ahmad, R., Halim, A., Aziz, T., 2012. Alleviation of temperature stress by nutrient management in crop plants: A review. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 12, 221-244.

Yassen, A., Abou El-Nour, E., Shedeed, S., 2010. Response of wheat to foliar Spray with urea and micronutrients. Journal of American Science. 6, 14-22.

Zain, M., Khan, I., Khan Qadri, R.W., Ashraf, U., Hussain, S., Minhas, S., Siddique, A., Muzammil Jahangir, M., Bashir, M., 2015. Foliar application of micronutrients enhances wheat growth, yield and related attributes. American Journal of Plant Sciences. 6, 864-869.

Zeidan M.S., Nofal, O.A., 2002. Effect of urea on the efficiency of spraying iron, manganese, zinc and copper on wheat. Egyptian Journal of Agronomy. 24, 121-131.

Zhao, G.Q., Ma, B.L., Ren, C.Z., 2007. Growth, gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and ion content of naked oat in response to salinity. Crop Science. 47, 123-131.

Ziaeian, A.H., Malakouti, M.J., 2001. Effects of Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu fertilization on the yield and grain quality of wheat in the calcareous soils of Iran. Food Security and Sustainability of Agro-Ecosystems. pp. 840-841.